A Paper Presented By Prof. Abiodun Amuda-Kannike SAN, FCArb
Dean, Faculty Of Law, Kwara State University, Malete, Via Ilorin, Kwara State, Email: email@example.com
AT THE PEACE SUBMIT ORGANISED BY FIRDAOS INTEGRATED SERVICES AT JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY, KENYA.
THURSDAY, MAY 25TH, 2023
WRITTEN IN BOTH
ENGLISH AND FRENCH LANGUAGES
In most countries of the World, especially sub-Sahara Africa and most especially Nigeria, identity and ethnitism have contributed enormously to political conflicts. This paper will define those keywords, while introducing us to the discuss, we shall look at and examine the factors responsible for this anomalies, the various efforts so far in resolving the issues through laws and other methods, we shall proffer solutions, believing that “identity and ethnic divisions” will no longer play any role in African Politics in order to avoid political conflicts in Africa especially in Nigeria.
The role played by “identity and ethnic divisions in fuelling political conflicts in Africa” especially, Nigeria being a case study, is serious which requires urgent attention by both private individuals, government and non-governmental organizations because it affects the very fabric of human existence and community or nations stability. This cannot be an issue to be ignored as many political conflicts are in existence all over the world especially in Africa and most especially in Nigeria which became apparent in the recent 2023 general elections. Accordingly, it is necessary to define/explain the keywords associated with the topic which keywords are;
iii. Ethnic Divisions
- Political Conflicts
A role can be said to mean a comprehensive pattern of behaviour which is socially recognized and which provides the means of identifying and placing an individual in a society.
An action of an individual or group of persons in a behavioural pattern causing something to occur or not to occur or to occur in a certain way, is also said to be the meaning of “role”.
Identity means, the state or fact of remaining the same thing or person/persons under certain situation or circumstances.
The deeper meaning of identity and in regards to the subject matter of this topic refers to the sense of who we are as individuals and as members of a social group, family or community vis-à-vis, local affinity.
Ethnic divisions in this context means when people in a country or a particular place who are or had lived and stayed together successfully without consideration of their differences even though they are from different tribes, are now considering to jettison their idea of a united group by considering their ethnic affiliations much more than their unity of purpose in that country, family, group or society.
It is further said that ethnic divisions can also be referred to as ethnic conflict, wherein at least one party objectives are defined in ethnic terms, and the conflict, its antecedents and possible solutions are perceived along ethnic lines. Most of the conflicts in this regard are hardly because of ethnic differences but as a result of political, economic, social, cultural or territorial issues.
Fuelling means, feeding, servicing, firing, gassing, kindling, energizing, charging, igniting, inciting, nourishing, oiling something to occur in the form of an action, or outcome of an action or continuation of an action or occurrence.
Conflict in itself means, a threat or perceived threat to an individual’s interests, values, or needs. Furthermore, in politics, the issue of conflicts occurs in different ways. This could occur on one hand, where the parties agrees on goals, but disagrees on the procedure in achieving them.
On the other hand, it can occur, where parties do not agree on goals, at all or it could even additionally be that parties will not agree on the facts causing the dispute which makes resolution of such to be difficult to resolve amicably.
Also, political conflict has been defined as a situation where behaviour of an actor or actors in a particular place or environment manifest itself in a confrontational manner to promote his or her group interest.
Now, amplifying the above definitions, is the fact that “ethnic politics” itself is a situation where the political class mobilize their support base majorly on the basis of ethnic sentiment, identity and majority of such support after the sentiment, comes from such ethnic group of the political actor or actors.
It has been said that ethnic politics have been more prevalent in sub-Sahara Africa. Political classes are elected into power through their tribal affiliations most often. For example, the Nigerian civil war of 1967 and 1970, the 1994 Holocaust in Rwanda, the problem between the Hutus and the Tutsis and the terrible carnage in Somalia, Liberia, Sierra-Leone, and many countries around the continent and the world over but Africa situations are prevalent and worst.
2.1 AN OVERVIEW OF IDENTITY AND ETHNIC PROBLEMS
Identity issue exists in Africa much more than other part of the world and it tend to be dangerously divisive. This conclusion to which we concede is true by McCauley. J.
First of all, an African who is black in colour, a woman, a Nigerian, a Kenyan, a Christian, a Muslim, a Farmer, an Activist, can each on their own constitute an identity to cause political conflicts and they have caused especially the issue of “religion”.
Also, ethnicity step up from what is seen as a community of people who have the conviction that they have a common identity and common fate emanating from the issues of origin, kinship, ties, traditions, cultural uniqueness, a shared history and possibly in most instances, a shared language. This was canvassed by Thompson (2000:58).
It has been further stated by Toland (1993:1) that the state has always been a risk of promoting and maintaining the degradation of the social environment because of the propensity of federal policy making it to focus on self-maintenance at the expense of those groups and individuals that are deemed peripheral to the state. The idea of a “pure” nation state with one monolithic voice has never been a reality and may probably never be. Also, study(ies) of statehood have shown that though the nature of state society has always been plural, the presence of pluralism, that exists as a form of rule only, when there are policies and expectations that serve the interests of all ethnic groups, irrespective of their differences.
3.0 AN EXAMINATION OF AFRICA GENERALLY
The family, the lineage, the clan, the tribe are the structures through which the African societies functions traditionally. This is characterized by three different links which are (i) cultural (ii) ethnic and (iii) linguistic. This situation can better be described as people’s historical experience, aspirations and desire. Once any of their ethnic group is deprived of their culture and affinity, then the people direction and purpose of life is seen as distorted.
During colonialism, there are some ethnic groups that were put together by the colonial power as one while some others were separated. Different administrative frameworks, different and new values, new institutions and techniques were introduced. The control mechanisms of the state replaced the autonomous local old order bringing in foreigners to be in control.
Drawing from the situation above in Africa is the fact that the new system derailed the peoples indigenous system of modest ways of life and same were replaced with centrally controlled resources in short supply giving rise to serious competition in demand.
No wonder, in Africa today, the ethnic conflicts have links with some ethno-regional dimension. Ethnicity has been seen in this formats;
- It is a source of conflicts
- It is a tool used by the political class to promote their self-centered ambitions.
We have looked at the two positions above and practically speaking, the two formats goes hand in hand like the Siamese-twins, as far as African continent is generally concerned. Ethnicity is a fundamental fuel for those who would have failed politically to succeed to be in power by manipulating the political consciousness of the Africans. This cut-across several countries such as Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana outlawing parties organized on tribal or ethnic basis, Houphouet Boigny of Cote D’Ivoire co opted ethnic groups through ministerial appointments, civil service jobs, social services and other opportunities.
Further ethnocentric behaviours can be seen in the case of Julius Nyerere, who saw tribalism as a curse rather than benefit, he decided to put in place nationalistic pride in order to stop tribalism. He did it in Tanganyika, which later became Tanzania.
On the part of Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, he put up an alliance of ethnic groups to team up with his popular, Kenya African National Union Party. This was a good move away of ethnitism.
South Africa, in the Post-Apartheid period, the fair share of ethnicity is being felt, notwithstanding that Apartheid itself divided the country along racial, ethnicity, and tribal democratic arrangement. What this connote is that, this division still remains today politically, more so, as the Zulu nationalists through the leadership of Chief Buthlezi see themselves as self-assertive Ethnocentrist.
4.0 NIGERIA AS A CASE STUDY
The real entity called Nigeria was created in 1914 and it is a fact that it is multi-ethnic country with more than 200 ethnic nationalities coupled with more than 250 dialects/languages. In political reality however, all the other tribes are sub-summed into other three major ethnic groups of Hausa/Fulani, Yoruba and Igbo (Ibo).
Furthermore, each of the above groups are sub-divided into further groups, and specifically, the Hausa-Fulani group alone have not less than 29 different divisions and the said groups as sub-divided among the three major groups interacted with each other before colonialism, and up till now but the artificial boundaries created by the colonial masters fuelled the “social construction” of these ethnic groups, in such a way that the creation of these “tribes” are in close relationship to the period of Nigeria under colonialism.
The colonialist in order to successfully administer Nigeria created what was known as Northern Region, Western Region and Eastern Region. Both the Western Region and Eastern Region in 1906 were combined to form what was known as “Southern Nigeria” from this period and previous ones identified above, we can see where the terms “identify” and “ethnic divisions” picked their roots in Nigeria politics and political conflicts. In 1914, both the Northern and Southern Protectorate were merged to become one Nigeria but ethnic recognition of the three dominant group continued till today, that is the Hausa-Fulani, the Yorubas and Igbos, there was another force known as South-South region of Nigeria later, though seen as a minority group but which is a serious force/group in Nigeria.
The country Nigeria gained independence in 1960 and a constitution was put in place called “the independence constitution” of Nigeria. The federal system which comprised of three regions was established to recognize and balance the avoidance of ethnic dominance with different regions having autonomous government with a central government in place for national issues such as foreign policy, international trade, and defence. There were struggles for political advantage among the regions in such a way that “the three regions and their ethnicities competed as enemies”. The notion was to request their regional candidates to win in order to capture opportunities at the centre for the benefit of the region. This trend continued even through the 1963 Republican constitution.
There was also the ethno-regional polarization which increased because the Christian South were afraid of the dominance by the more populated and Muslim North, and at the same time, the poor economy of the North also created fear in comparism to the educated southern Nigeria. Hence the struggle through religion and ethnicity among the regions in Nigeria.
As time goes on, with ethnicity, and religious inter-play, the possibility of two regions joining together against one region occurred, and this was utilised to its fullest, when the Northern party entered into alliance with the Eastern Regional Party to outsmart the Western Regional party, this caused political conflicts leading to the breakdown of democratic structures and the eventual takeover of government by the military in the first military coup of Major Kaduna Nzeogwu. The military was in power from 1966 till 1979 with the civil war also devastating the country.
The Military Government created 12 states and later 19 states. The aim of the multi-state creation was to foster federalism in order to stop the dominance of ethnic groups by creating opportunities for other smaller ethnic groups.
In 1979, the National Party of Nigeria was declared winner of the election. Because it gained significant votes from the south, it was seen though, may not be totally correct; as a “National Party”. The election was characterized by ethnic and religious sentiments including cross-regional support (North and East). One significant take home, here was the fact that no one particular region can win the general election using ethnicity without the support of at least the significant votes from the other ethnic region.
In 1983, there was an election, and the military took over power because of allegations of electoral fraud and other reasons. This was the Buhari – Idiagbon region which was toppled by General Babangida. Under Babangida regime, they created states which gave rise to 30 states. They created two parties to avoid ethnic politics and it is posited that apart from the bad aspect of cancelling the election, which was won by M.K.O Abiola, the political structures still remains the best arrangement to avoid “identity and ethnic divisions” which has been fuelling political conflicts in Africa especially, Nigeria.
As the pressure mounted on General Babangida to relinquish power, he transferred power to Chief Ernest Shonekan who was eventually over-thrown by General Abacha.
In 1999, Multi Party Democracy returned to Nigeria as a result of General Abdulsalam Abubakar interest to return power to civilians upon taking over power as a result of the death of General Sanni Abacha. Chief Olusegun Obasanjo won the election, subsequently, Alhaji Musa Yar’adua took over after successful election, he died while serving his third year in office. Dr. Goodluck Jonathan, his vice-president completed his first term while he also won his re-election. This paved way for General Buhari who contested as a civilian and also spent first term in office and still spending the second term in office until 29th May, 2023.
The 2023 Nigerian general election has just been concluded and won by a Southerner especially West-Southerner, in person of Senator Ahmed Bola Tinubu, who will be sworn in as president on 29th day of May, 2023 as Nigerian president.
The points in the outcome of the outcome of the 2023 general election are thus;
- To avoid dominance of one ethnic group against the other, the APC, Labour and some other parties decided to go by zoning arrangement that it is the turn of a Southern candidate to be president. The PDP did not follow this arrangement.
- To avoid the dominance of one religion against the other, the president and vice-president ought not to come from one particular religious faith, the APC, could not do this because of the fear of losing the votes from the North sentimentally, the PDP, Labour and some other parties were able to meet up.
iii. From, the results of the election, one can see ethnic divisions in the voting pattern except for some few states, although, some results shows other factors influenced the outcome.
- Religion was used to campaign and some votes were casted significantly on the basis of religion rather than competence. It was seen by some Nigerians across regions as “a religious war” rather than a general election.
- There were alignment and realignment of groups in the group of identity to show strength, annoyance, aggrieveness and show-off for recognition rather than party affiliation nor regional ethnic affiliations.
- There were significant less government interference with the outcome of the election in comparism with other elections.
vii. There were significant level of insecurity and threat against voters in terms of ethnic affinity and retaliation or counter retaliation.
viii. Even the arrangement of sharing positions especially that of the national assembly with ethnic colouration has started and already causing political unrest or threat to democracy, how much more when it comes to the issues of ministerial appointments.
5.0 CAUSES OF IDENTITY AND ETHNIC DIVISIONS IN AFRICA ESPECIALLY NIGERIA
There are so many factors causing “identity” and “ethnic” divisions in Africa, especially in Nigeria and the followings which may not be exhaustive caused and still causing political conflicts;
- Historical antecedents
- Lack of morality
iii. Lack of proper education
- Lack of statesmanship
- Constitutional provisions and laws/political parties
- Lack of development
vii. Concentration of opportunities with the political class/leaders
viii. Non inclusion or recognition of several ethnic groups in leadership position
- Foreign interest and support for conflicts
- The UN/ICC lack of adequate power and hypocrisy of World powers.
- Historical antecedents
We have seen from all we have said earlier about “identity” and ethnitism in Africa and Nigeria that it started when families, communities and clans were on their own several years before colonialism. Because, it has grown as an institution which people are used to, it has become difficult to jettison for the greater unity of the country. This has more or less become the character of the people and part of it reared its head in the 2023 Nigerian general election, where candidates were voted for along the lines of identity and ethnicity.
- Lack of Proper Education
Education is key to national unity and integration. When there exist no peace building education in our curriculum, it is very difficult to stop ethnicity. There is the need for education to stop hatred. The educational curriculum must promote tolerance. The peace building programme is a process rather than a “product”, its also long term rather than short term.
iii. Lack of Statesmanship
Statesmanship politically is defined as possessing the quality of being a statesman. It is further defined as an experienced politician, especially, one who is respected for making good judgments. A statesman is equally a person who stands by his ideals and does everything in his power to do what he believes is right for the people of his country. A statesman see to the interest of his country in general and not his ethnic tribe or identity which most politicians are interested in thereby causing political conflicts.
- Constitutional Provisions, Law and Political Parties
Most of the African countries including Nigeria tried to insert it in their constitution that there shall be no discrimination whatsoever against any person which is captured in section 42 of the constitution which state thus;
“1. A citizen of Nigeria of particular community, ethnic group, place of origin, sex, religion or political opinion shall not by reason only that he is such a person:
- be subjected either expressly by, or in the practical application of, any law in force in Nigeria or any executive or administrative action of the government, to disabilities or restrictions to which citizens of Nigeria of other communities, ethnic groups, places of origin, sex, religions or political opinions are not made subject; or
- be accorded either expressly by, or in the practical application of, any law in force in Nigeria or any such executive or administrative action, any privilege or advantage that is not accorded to citizens of Nigeria of other communities, ethnic groups, places of origin, sex, religions or political opinions.
- No citizen of Nigeria shall be subjected to any disability or deprivation merely by reason of the circumstances of his birth.
- Nothing in subsection (1) of this section shall invalidate any law by reason only that the law imposes restrictions with respect to the appointment of any person to any office under the State or as a member of the armed forces of the Federation or members of the Nigeria Force or to an office in the service of a body corporate established directly by any law in force in Nigeria.”
From the above, it seems the constitution is aware of the role ethnicity will play, so, it decided to protect it not to be infringed upon or use at all to deprived people of their rights which includes political rights, right to vote and be voted for and hold political positions.
The Federal Character Commission Law also added favour in support of avoiding ethnic dominance of one group against the other. The question is; why has it become difficult to insert directly in the constitution that Nigeria shall have a rotatory system government with the presidency and other positions being rotated among the geo-political zones? Why has the political parties not inserted it in their constitution including members of the National Assembly in such a way that no particular party can dodge away from this constitutional and law requirement as to which region in a particular election year their candidates should come from. This problem was almost causing political upheaval in the 2023 Nigerian general election as ethnic sentiment and identity caused political divisions.
- Lack of development
First of all, Africa is seen as one of the least developed countries of the world. Furthermore, Nigeria is also categorized as a developing nation or as one of the undeveloped nation. There are so many part of Nigeria, where poverty is entrenched as part of life. The people in such areas will rather prefer their own indigenes or person with their “identity” to win an election or several elections whether they are capable or not, their believe is that such person or persons will reciprocate sentimentally to “develop” their ethnic localities even if it will be at the expense of the entire Nigeria.
No matter the level of campaigns or education you give such persons, they see the negligence of their community as occurring just because their own ethnic citizen is either not leading the government or part of the government in place.
vii. Concentration of opportunities with the political class/leaders
The issue that has agitated the minds of most Africans especially Nigerians is why do the politicians or political class for their selfish reasons “wipe up sentiment of ethnicity” in their favour in order to score political success and after finding themselves at the helm of affairs still abandon the people who voted them into power through ethnic sentiment? The simple answer is that they are in majority interested in selfish opportunities and not the interest of the people.
They want to make a lot of money, amass wealth and put into ownership properties at the expense of developing the country and communities. The position should be “made less attractive” so that only those who are ready to serve can be in power without sentiment of tribes/indigenes.
No politician should be allowed to earn much more than a teacher in terms of various categories/cadre. This will go a long way to develop the country with the scarce resources instead of stealing the money and whenever they get into trouble, they easily wipe-up “ethnic sentiment”. This has caused more political tensions and still affect the Nigerian nation till today.
viii. Non inclusion or recognition of several ethnic groups in leadership position
The various ethnic groups in Nigeria are interested in having members of their tribes as serving members of each existing government. This can also be seen generally in the African continent to an extent that once an ethnic group is not in a particular government or not well represented in a government, such ethnic group will resort to the cry of being “marginalized politically”. This often creates tension especially when there are in existence in Nigeria of ethnic associations such as;
- Ohaneze – Ndigbo (Igbo Group)
- Afenifere (Yoruba Group)
iii. Arewa Consultative forum (Hausa-Fulani Group)
There are other groups including militia groups.
- Foreign Interest
There is no doubt that some foreign nations do not want to see Africa being without conflict in order to checkmate their growth against the interest of those foreign nations. The most important lethal weapon to use is to encourage ethnicity and bad government with attendant political unrest and instability.
There has been denials and counter-denials but the simple truth is that even for developed nations, there have been interest shown as to who and which political party should win in order to protect interest. Nigeria being the toast of most countries of the world especially Western countries by way of ethnicity interest, countries associated with tribes and supportive of tribes against other tribes.
- The Government, the U.N.N/ICC lack adequate power and hypocrisy
The UNN/ICC are unable to discourage ethnicity and the issue of identity. In fact, it is seen as if when it comes to African issue on the matter most especially Nigeria, the U.N.N/ICC look away as if no crime is committed. This has always fuelled political crisis since no one is afraid of being charged to court or before the ICC, on this issue of ethnicity related crime and be punished.
Religion plays important role in Africa and Nigerian political affairs in such a way that the voters, the country are divided along religious lines especially in Nigeria. This became more pronounced in the 2023 general election as some of the political parties were seen as more Christian friendly, while some others were seen as more Muslim friendly.
The APC has to struggle throughout the election to convince the electorate about their decision to run “a Muslim – Muslim Ticket”. Even during the NRC and SDP election in Nigeria which almost threw the country, Nigeria into another civil war, it took the understanding of Nigerians especially the personality of Bashorun M.K.O Abiola to convince the electorates as to the reason why the Muslim-Muslim ticket of Baba Gana Kingibe and himself should be trusted. He got votes from both the Christians and Muslims voters generally even though the election was eventually annulled.
The issue of “identity” and “ethnic” divisions in Africa especially in Nigeria which have caused and still causing political conflicts is of great concern as it rears its ugly head in several political situations in Africa most especially in Nigeria thereby causing political tension.
One of the current event in regard to this was the Nigerian 2023 general election where serious issues of identity and ethnic divisions almost destroyed the campaigns and eventual election. There are still ongoing tension in relation to the fallout of the election which has resulted into court cases/election petitions.
We were able to show the historical link of “identity” and “ethnic” divisions in political conflicts both in Africa generally and more specifically, in Nigeria.
In order to appreciate the topic, we examined the factors responsible for the said phenomenon and there are multi-factors listed and analysed. This is to enable us to proffer adequate solutions/recommendations accordingly. We gave succinct recommendations with a conclusion that we must stop placing priority on “identity” and “ethnic” divisions which is the order of the day in Africa and generally in Nigeria otherwise it will continue to cause political instability, unrest and destruction of our country instead of the massive development and unity of purpose required.
From, all that we have said, analysed and critically examined, we hereby state that if peace is necessary and real nationhood is our desire in Africa, especially, Nigeria, then we must avoid placing priority on “identity” and “ethnic” divisions as this will continue to cause political instability, unrest and destruction of our country instead of the massive development and unity of purpose required.
Having looked at the historical antecedents, the factors and effects of “identity” and “ethnic” divisions in political instability in Africa and especially in Nigeria, we make the following recommendations;
- There should be seminars, symposias and conference which will disabuse the minds of most Africans especially Nigerians from placing too much priority and emphasis on “identity” and “ethnic” divisions. We should see ourselves as brothers and sisters in order to achieve peace.
- We need to preach more of morality in order for our conscience to work, that doing good for your neighbor regardless of tribes and affinity will bring peace and it is the ultimate of high moral standard.
iii. There should be proper education and proper understanding of the people from primary, secondary schools and tertiary education including vocational centers and general public about the negative side effect of “identity” and “ethnic” divisions. This must be declared as an urgent necessity as a “state of emergency” because presently the level of understanding along this line is too poor.
- The populace should inculcate more characteristics of statesmanship and not ethnicity or parochial mind. The larger interest of the populace is important either of Africa and most especially, Nigeria.
- Most of the African countries should amend their constitution by specifically inserting a provision in the constitution that at every given election year, the Presidency, Vice Presidency, Governor and Deputy Governorship position shall rotate among the geo-political zones and in such a way that no political party can or shall have the power to change the geo-political zones constitutional arrangement.
- There should be “even-development by government” cutting across ethnic groups and geo-political zones in such a way that no geo-political zones or ethnic groups will be much more interested to play ethnic politics. Most ethnic politics are played by the people because of the believe that “except a member of their ethnic group or having the same identity with them are in political power, they will never have the opportunity of development”.
vii. The salary structures, benefits and opportunity accruing to political leader should be fine tune in such a way that a teacher should be paid much more higher than political leaders. This arrangement will keep only those who are ready to serve the people in government and they will stop or reduce the use of ethnic and identity to cause political instability.
viii. The various ethnic groups in any African country in terms of political arrangement/power should be considered. This will bring in a sense of inclusiveness. The “identity” and “ethnic” divisions in Africa especially Nigeria will reduce.
- There should be enough awareness to the African countries especially Nigeria to avoid foreign countries who tries to support one group of person against others or one ethnic group against the others. We should know that no foreigners would love us more than we love ourselves. Our disputes and disagreement can be resolved by ourselves.
- The court, the United Nations and international court of justice should be more stead-fast on the issue of anyone playing “identity” and “ethnic” divisions for political gains. Such a person should be prosecuted while the law in relation to this should be strengthened.
- The use of religion to score political gains in African should stop and be discouraged, most especially in Nigeria. Even though it may be hard to be accepted by some persons, politics should be separated from religion and Nigerians can do it if we intensify our efforts.
- INTERNET MATERIALS
- Role; see: https://www.merriam.webster.com; Accessed through the internet on 4/5/2023 at 1am
- Identity; see: https://www.collinsdictionary.com; Accessed through the internet on 4/5/2023 at 2.am
- Identity; see: https://www.facinghistory.org; Accessed through the internet on 4/5/2023 at 3am
- Ethnic divisions; see: https://www.collinsdictionary.com; Accessed through the internet on 4/5/2023 at 4am
- Ethnic conflict; see https://www.britannica.com; Accessed through the internet on 5/5/2023 at 12:15am
- Fuelling; see: https://www.yourdictionary.com; Accessed through the internet on 5/5/2023 at 2am
- Political Conflicts; see: https://www.sciencedirect.com; Accessed through the internet on the 5/5/2023 at 3am
- Political Conflicts; see: https://www.collinsdictionary.com; Accessed through the internet on the 5/5/2023 at 3:10am
- Political conflict; see: https://www.igi–global.com; Accessed through the internet on 5/5/2023 at 6:30am
- Ethnic Politics: see: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com; Accessed through the internet on 5/5/2023 at 6:40am
- Ethnic Politics and Ethnic conflict; see: https://www.jstor.org; Accessed through the internet on 5/5/2023 at 6:55am
- Francis M.D; Ethnicity: An African predicament; see: https://www.brookings.edu/articles/ethnicity-an-african-predicament; Accessed through the internet on 6/5/2023 at 2am
- On Ethnicity… See https://www.accord.org.za/ajor; Accessed through the internet on 6/5/2023 at 1am
- A historical Analysis; see https://www.grin.com; Accessed through the internet on 6/5/2023 at 8am
- A historical Analysis; See https://www.researchgated.net; Accessed through the internet on 6/5/2023 at 10am
- UNICEF Innocent; see https://www.unicef.irc.org; Accessed through the internet on 7/5/2023 at 1am
- Statesmanship; see https://dictionary.cambridge.org; Accessed through the internet on 7/5/2023 at 1:45am
- Ethnic identity…; see https://www.researchgate.net; Accessed through the internet on 8/5/2023 at 1:30am
- Ethnicity and Nigeria’s underdevelopment: see https://www.ajol.info; Accessed through the internet on 8/5/2023 at 4am
- McCauley .J. (2017); The Logic of Ethnic and Religious conflict in Africa. New York Cambridge University Press
- Thompson .A; 2000: An introduction to African Politics. London : Routledge
- Toland J.D (ed) 1993: Ethnicity and the state. Political and Legal Anthropology Series No. 9. New Brunswick. N.J Transaction.
- Falcon, T. (1999); The History of Nigeria: London: Greenwood Press. (Falota 1999:5)
- Thompson .A.; 2000: An introduction to African Politics, London, Routledge.
- Falola .T. 1999. The history of Nigeria. London, Greenwood Press (Falota 1999:68)
- Section 42 of the 1999 constitution as amended
- The Federal Character Commission Act
 This topic afford the opportunity to state the obvious on the burning issue to wipe off sentiment from politics.
 McCauley .J. (2017); The Logic of Ethnic and Religious conflict in Africa. New York Cambridge University Press
 Thompson .A; 2000: An introduction to African Politics. London : Routledge
 Toland J.D (ed) 1993: Ethnicity and the state. Political and Legal Anthropology Series No. 9. New Brunswick. N.J Transaction.
 Francis M.D; Ethnicity: An African predicament; see: https://www.brookings.edu/articles/ethnicity-an-african-predicament; Accessed through the internet on 6/5/2023 at 2am
 Falcon, T. (1999); The History of Nigeria: London: Greenwood Press. (Falota 1999:5)
 Thompson .A.; 2000: An introduction to African Politics, London, Routledge.
 Falola .T. 1999. The history of Nigeria. London, Greenwood Press (Falota 1999:68)
 Falola 1999:98; & Thompson 2000:67
 Suberu in Diamond & Platter 1994:58
 Falola (1999):10
 Nel & McGowan 1999 – 155 – 156
 Section 42 of the 1999 constitution as amended
 The Federal Character Commission Act
 There is the need to insert this in the constitution and the Electoral Act.
 The fact is that Africa need to concentrate on their development rather than conflicts
 There is the need to avoid this type of sentiment.
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