By Prof. Omoniyi Bukola Akinola, Dean, Faculty of Law, Redeemer’s University Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.

(Being a paper presented at Legal Practice (LPD) Webinar Part 1, held on 11 November 2021. THEME: Role of Lawyers in Resolving Nigeria’s Security and Stability Challenges)

Abstract

Good governance is the pillar upon which any good society stands and thrives. The aim of this paper is to examine the concept of good governance, the extent of its application in Nigeria and the need to develop an effective model for Nigeria considering its multilingual, multiethnic and multi-religious composition. The paper adopts the doctrinal approach in this research by examining current literature in this topic and making further recommendations for research while finding solutions in tolerance and adherence to the spirit and letters of a Constitution which is generally acceptable to all Nigerians both home and in diaspora.

Keywords: Constitution, ethnicity, Good governance, multilingual, multiethnic, multi-religious

  • Introduction

There is no gainsaying the fact that Nigeria is a Multilingual, multiethnic and Multi-religious entity. It is also a notorious fact that Nigeria is a blessed nation in terms of human and material resources as an heterogeneous society. A society is simply seen as a group of people living together who share similar customs and laws. In a heterogeneous society however, people of different cultural affinity, values and beliefs live together. The decision to live together may be arrived at through mutual understanding or agreement. It may also be through other forces like colonialism, as is the case with most African nation-states.[1] In the past, issues relating to multilingual, multiethnic and multi-religious societies did not come to the front burner in our national life. It is obvious that what was a blessing in the past has turned to a major issue in governance in Nigeria. In this wise, governance has been defined as the management of society by the people, or as the exercise of authority to manage a country’s affairs and resources.[2] Whether or not there is good governance in Nigeria will be examined in this paper. The paper will further examine the concept and essentials of good governance, its sustenance in a multilingual, multiethnic, and multi-religious society like ours. The paper will not be complete without an examination of the constitutional provision(s) (if any) on the applicability of good governance to Nigeria as a nation. The paper will do a brief comparative analysis of what good governance entails in other heterogeneous jurisdictions and recommend an acceptable model for the peaceful co-existence of Nigerians as a society with diversity in language, ethnicity and religion.

  • The Concept of Good Governance

The presence of good governance is the absence of bad governance. According to the United Nations, bad governance is being increasingly regarded as one of the root causes of all evil within our societies.[3] Governance is simply the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented.[4] As far as early 1990s, the notion of “good governance” as necessary for sustainable development and poverty reduction has gained widespread currency, especially among international organizations.[5] Good governance is meanwhile specified as one of the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), an agenda for reducing poverty and sustainable development those world leaders agreed on at the Millennium Summit in September 2000. In essence, governance has been defined as “The sound exercise of political, economic, and administrative authority to manage a country’s resources for development. It involves the institutionalization of a system through which citizens, institutions, organizations, and groups in a society articulate their interests, exercise their rights, and mediate their differences in pursuit of the collective good.[6]

In other words, governance refers to several ways by which social life is coordinated. It is a process of social engagement between the rulers and the ruled in the society[7]. It involves participation by both the governor and the governed (i.e. the leader and the follower)[8] and this implies that governance is predicated on the relationship between the ruling class and the ruled class in the society[9]. Governance is as old as human civilization and only became a popular concept in the 1990s due to donor activities[10]. Biswas in his paper described good governance as a way of mobilizing people of a country in the best direction possible which requires the unity of people in society and motivates them to attain political objectivity and this ensures proper utilization of all the resources of the state for its citizens which safeguards sustainable development.[11] In meeting the needs of the society, it is expected that the institution should produce a very good result by making the best use of her resources. The word good governance however, is enormously equivocal as it means different things to different organisations.

Generally, the social contract theory, believes that the terrible, violent, unsecured and unpredictable state of nature necessitate the need for men to come together, under a social contract, and yielded their rights to security of personal lives and property of the state. The state is expected to protect the personal lives and property of the citizens, as well as their general welfare. The state, as an amorphous entity, cedes this power to a smaller and proactive agency called the government. Good governance, therefore, includes the processes and products of the government towards the fulfillment of the social contract it has with the people.[12]

  • Essentials of Good Governance

Going by the definitions above, it will be noted that good governance has some characteristics in common and if these characteristics are synergized, the society will be a safe place and develop effortlessly both economic and politically. It has been observed that good governance stands on 8 vital pillars. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law.[13] By way of emphasis, good governance ensures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society. We observe that one of the future needs of the society is creating an enabling environment for employment through generation of data for National planning which engenders national cohesion and reduction of social tension.

The essence of governance is that it is a process of continuing creativity in the search for adjustment and accommodation in the midst of uncertainty[14].

According to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), “Good Governance is, among other things, participatory, transparent and accountable. It is also effective and equitable as it promotes the rule of law. Good governance is the process where public institutions conducts public affairs, manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law[15]. Good governance ensures that political, social, and economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that the voices of the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in decision making over the allocation of developmental resources”[16] while in the World Bank and other multilateral development banks, good governance addresses economic institutions and public sector management which includes transparency and accountability, regulatory reform, and public sector skills and leadership.[17] The International Monetary Fund (IMF, 2020) emphasized that governance is a broad concept covering all aspects of how a country is governed, including its economic policies, regulatory framework, and adherence to rule of law[18].

  • Sustaining Good Governance in a Multilingual, Multiethnic and Multi-Religious Society

Governance is an approach or perspective that focuses on state, societal institutions and the relationship between them as well as on how rules are made in a society which are accepted as legitimate to enhance values that are sought by individuals and groups within the society[19] whereas at the international and the national levels, it refers to the objective of producing orderly, just, and peaceful relations to deal with the problems encountered in a complex and rapidly changing world.[20] Governance in a multilingual, multiethnic, and multi-religious society entails the vigorous involvement of civil society. In order to achieve this, the societal members must grip the culture of negotiation and tolerance.

Another threat to good governance in a multilingual, multiethnic, and multi-religious society is discrimination between citizens on the basis of language, ethnicity and religion. Discrimination as a global concept is a socially structured action that is unfair or unjustified and harms individuals and groups.[21] Discrimination can be attributed to social interactions that occur to protect more powerful and privileged groups at the detriment of other groups. Once a nation permits the fabrics of discrimination in action and inactions, it sews a thorn garment of disunity and discord which leads to social discords and tensions. Discrimination could be racial, tribal or ethnic, gender-based, ability or disability, among others.

The centerpiece of the international community’s drive against racial discrimination is the International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD).  Its requirements have been accepted by over three quarters of states in the world[22]. Presently, tribal societies have been pushed to the edges of globalization, tribalism is arguably undiminished.[23] Ethnic discrimination is defined as unfair treatment that is attributed to a person’s ethnicity; it poses threats to the well-being of most racial and ethnic minority groups.[24]

Gender discrimination is unequal or disadvantageous treatment of an individual or group of individuals based on gender. Gender discrimination holds back the growth of individuals, the development of countries and the evolution of societies, to the disadvantage of both men and women.[25] Gender discrimination is prohibited under almost every human rights treaty. This includes international laws providing for equal gender rights between men and women, as well as those specifically dedicated to the realization of women’s rights, such as the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) considered the international bill of rights for women. In addition, discrimination against people living with disability stems from the fact that people view them as persons who cannot add value to themselves nor the society, in their right to live a normal life. This Convention on the Rights of persons living with disability (CRPD) came into force in 2006 and it has greatly impacted disability law and human rights law in general all over the world. In essence, state actors in a multilingual, multiethnic, and multi-religious society must ensure that the legal frameworks at domestic and international levels against discrimination of any kind must be adhered to as much as possible. This should be made possible by proper participatory governance model.

  • Constitutional Provisions for Good Governance under the Nigerian Constitution

The Nigerian Constitution consists of a preamble and seven sections. The 3rd paragraph of the preamble states: “…and to provide for a Constitution for the purpose of promoting the good government and welfare of all persons in our country, on the principles of freedom, equality and justice, and for the purpose of consolidating the unity of our people”[26] The preamble lists reasons for establishing a government. The Constitution is divided into the Chapters stated below:

Chapter I: General Provisions

Chapter II: Fundamental Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy

Chapter III: Citizenship

Chapter IV: Fundamental Rights

Chapter V: The Legislature

Chapter VI: The Executive

Chapter VII: The Judicature

Chapter VIII: Federal Capital Territory, Abuja and General Supplementary Provisions

From the above provisions, it is clear that the concept of constitutionalism is an essential tool in achieving public accountability, the end of which is good governance. Therefore, the provision of the Constitution indicates that the government is based on the principles of law and not of men. Rule of law is one of the tenets of democracy and when it prevails, it prevents arbitrary rule, sustains the issue of equality before the law and promotes good governance.[27] The rule of law must not be undermined in a democratic regime. The law must be respected by the government and the governed.[28] In other words, the concept of ‘la Principe de legalite’ is opposed to arbitrary powers. Thus, constitution therefore checks and balances the arbitrary actions by government.[29]We must mention in passing that the Judiciary has a vital role to play in sustaining the rule of law.

In the same vein, the UNESCAP view on good governance as stated above should be reiterated that one of the focused eight (8) major characteristics of good governance is accountability. It is therefore important to note that in this era, dedication to the ideals of democracy, rule of law and traditions of accountability, are all embedded in the Constitution thus, this provision for good and responsible governance becomes a core value in measuring the performance of governments at all levels.[30] Discussing further on accountability, good governance must ensure transparency in administration and must contain checks and balances in order to prevent abuse of state power. It is quite unfortunate that in this present administration, the government find it extremely difficult to give a proper account of money spent and the loans taken from other countries. Recently, the Socio-Economic Rights and Accountability Project (SERAP)[31] filed a lawsuit asking the Federal High Court in Abuja to “stop President Muhammadu Buhari from spending N26bn in the 2022 presidency budget on local and foreign travels, meals and refreshments, ‘sitting allowance’, ‘welfare package’, and office building.” In the Suit Number FHC/ABJ/CS/1361/2021 filed on 7th November, 2021, SERAP sought: “an order of mandamus to direct and compel President Buhari to cut the N26bn presidency budget on local and foreign travels, meals and refreshments, and to send a supplementary appropriation bill to the National Assembly to reflect the reduction.” SERAP also sought “an order of mandamus to direct and compel President Buhari to publish spending details on the State House Medical Centre since May 29, 2015 to date; and to redirect some of the money on travels and meals to improve public healthcare facilities across the country.” It further stated that, “The huge spending by the presidency is neither necessary nor in the public interest, especially in the face of the country’s dire economic position, the scant allocations to education and health, and the growing level of borrowing by the Federal Government to fund the 2022 budget.” SERAP also argued that, “Any spending of public funds should stay within the limits of constitutional responsibilities, and oath of office by public officers, as well as comply with Chapter 2 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution relating to fundamental objectives and directive principles of state policy.”[32] From the above, it is clear that despite the fact that the constitution makes provision for accountability, this administration chose to ignore this provision instead; it keeps on with questionable budgetary allocations, mismanagement, bad governance, lack of accountability and transparency and these and many more serve as conduit pipes for draining national resources.[33] This is because citizens hardly see the evidence of each fiscal year in terms of infrastructure for sustainable development.

Dicey defined the supremacy of the constitution as absolute supremacy or predominance of the regular law as opposed to the influence of arbitrary power[34]. He stated further that supremacy of the constitution emphasizes equality before the law or equal subjection of all classes to the constitution and the right of individuals as defined and enforced by the Courts[35]. The recent invasion on the residence of the Supreme Court Justice, Hon. Justice Mary Odili by the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission shows that this present administration flaunts the rule of law. Kalu observed that in a democratic set-up, the rule of law must be strictly adhered to for the sake of national progress and development. He further stated that the country’s democracy is gradually growing and as such, acts that are not in tandem with the constitution of Nigeria and democratic process must not be tolerated.[36] . From the above analysis, it is clear that the constitution recognizes citizens as equal and if the ‘supremacy of the constitution is respected by all citizens, that is, the governed and the government, there is the possibility that good governance will be the order of the day[37]. According to Uzoigwe and Nwadialor, the intermingling of ethno-religious identities amidst the primordial idea of common ancestry and heritage more often than not sparks off divisions, segregation, discrimination and conflict. Ethno-Religious divides no doubt rear its ugly head most when there is a crosscut between ethnic identity and religious inclinations.[38]

For instance, section 42 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 prohibits discrimination on grounds of race, sex, religion among others[39] while section 10 wholly prohibits the adoption of any religion as a state religion. This provision extends to this nation called Nigeria. This should not be in letters alone but in words, spirit, action and reaction.

At this juncture, it is logical to say that there is a synergy between the constitution and good governance. The Nigerian Constitution established a national government also created room for separation of powers and checks and balances. Therefore, the constitution is placed above all other laws that guides the government and other organs of government.

For instance, the Yoruba tribe comprise of the several dialects/nationalities such as the Ijebus, Ondos, Oyos, Ijeshas, Afonjas, Okuns, Igbominas, Ibolos, Aworis, Egbas, Ekitis, while in a State like Abia, we have the Ngwas spread across Isiala Ngwa, Obingwa, Osisioma Ngwa, Aba Ngwas with neighbours in Ukwa land, Aros of Arochukwu, Ohafias, Abiribas with Imo State comprising among others of the Owerris, Mbaises, Orlus, Ideatos, etc. South South states such as Akwa Ibom include Ibibio, Eket, Anang, Okobo, Andoni, and Rivers State with Ijaws spread across Ondo, Bayelsa, Edo, Delta States among others. The Edos,  Esan are among the nationalities in Edo State while the core north include the Hausas, Fulanis, Kanuris, Nupes, Tivs, Idomas, Langtangs, Adamawa, of the Plateau, and many more.[40] The reality is that even within our geographical regions, we complain of marginalization. Recently this author read a post on one of the platforms in a State in the South Eastern part of the Country complaining that Board appointments within the State Government circles tilts heavily in favour of a particular Senatorial district to the disadvantage of others. Secession is not the solution to perceived marginalization because even in a nuclear family, parents have their favourites but manage to run the family by protecting every interest as much as possible.

  • Comparative Analysis of Heterogeneous Society with Good Governance Models

It should be noted that governance in multilingual, multiethnic, and multi-religious society comes with many challenges and problems and in order to face these challenges and sustain good governance, institutional mechanisms and frameworks must be drawn and agreed to by the majority while also protecting the interests of the minorities. This will augment a positive and desired result like the case of Tunku Abdul Rahman, the father of Independence in Malaysia who managed to overcome all the challenges and difficulties in uniting the people to bring his country to independence in 1957[41]. As earlier mentioned, Tunku’s achievement in sustaining good governance was as a result of the two mechanisms he crafted in managing race relationship among the people of Malaysia and this method made independence and subsequent nation building possible[42]. First, Tunku identified a suitable vehicle to win independence and to form the government. His potentials fostered the alliance coalition of Parti Perikatan consist of UMNO, MCA-Malaysia Chinese Association and MIC-Malaysia Indian Congress which originally was not his idea but he acquired the strength to lead the country to independence though, the battle for independence was fought on behalf of the Malays but when Tunku took over, he successfully built the nation by uniting Malays and non-Malays and managed both the internal and external challenge among the British, Malay and Non-Malay population.

In addition, Tunku knew the importance of race relations and to this, he laid emphasis on the management of race relations which later produced interdependence among the different races. His position was that the races stand a better chance to when united to produce a good result other than standing alone and this brought the ideal of collective sharing of power and responsibility which assisted him in nation building. Though he was criticized by both Malays and Non-Malays, yet his proposed interdependence was accepted and this gave birth to the reality of a plural society. Today,  the transition from “Tanah Melayu untuk Melayu” (the Malay land for the Malays only) to “Tanah Melayu untuk semua rakyat berbilang kaum” (the Malay land for citizens of all races) has changed the fundamental views and ideas of nation building especially among the Malays; from one nation for one race to one nation for multiple races.[43]

Another country worthy of examination is Indonesia. Indonesia is a plural society. On August 17th, 1945, Indonesia was proclaimed an independent Republic with Sukarno as its first President. The new government faced the challenge of politically uniting almost 100 million people comprising approximately 300 ethnic groups who spoke an estimated 650 local languages.[44] The Census of the year 2000 registered more than 1000 ethnic and sub-ethnic groups, each group claiming to have its own language and culture. As such, heterogeneity is an inherent characteristic in Indonesia.[45] Like Nigeria, Indonesia also has ethnic and religious crisis especially in its formative years of nationhood. One of the attempts to manage its heterogeneity is the consensus to limit the number of its political parties to three.[46] Between 1996 and 1997, the Indonesian government decided to suppress voices clamouring for regional rebellion and the country eventually paid dearly for it.[47]  As a result, the Indonesian government has a rethink.

A notable aspect of the Sukarno regime, which would be further developed under President Suharto, was its ability to orchestrate public policies which engaged virtually all ethnic groups in the process of constructing new national identities. Ultimately these identities were drawn toward the aim of stable and uniform economic development. Although sporadic ethnic rebellions broke out in many areas of the archipelago between 1950 and 1964, virtually all these developments were geared towards struggles for higher political status within the new Indonesian nation, not for a separation from it.

Indonesia appears to have gone a long way towards conceptualizing and implementing a national vision of multi-ethnic co-existence.[48] The Indonesian government has succeeded in constructing a unified, multi-ethnic state (admittedly at some costs to its ethnic minorities) with the fourth largest population in the world (after China, India and the USA) and the thirteenth largest economy, just behind Canada’s.[49] The countries analysed above are yet to attain perfection in nationhood but they have made better strides in benefitting from their multicultural nature than Nigeria.

  • Developing a Workable Good Governance Model for Nigeria

The Nigerian Constitution consists of a preamble and seven sections. The 3rd paragraph of the preamble provides “…and to provide for a Constitution for the purpose of promoting the good government and welfare of all persons in our country, on the principles of freedom, equality and justice, and for the purpose of consolidating the unity of our people”[50] Accountability and transparency are recommended tools for good governance in Nigeria.

In addition to the points raised above on accountability as a tool for good governance, SERAP also sought “an order of mandamus to direct and compel President Buhari to publish spending details on the State House Medical Center since May 29, 2015 to date; and to redirect some of the money on travels and meals to improve public healthcare facilities across the country.” It further stated that, “The huge spending by the presidency is neither necessary nor in the public interest, especially in the face of the country’s dire economic position, the scant allocations to education and health, and the growing level of borrowing by the Federal Government to fund the 2022 budget has been generating social tension.” SERAP also argued that, “Any spending of public funds should stay within the limits of constitutional responsibilities, and oath of office by public officers, as well as comply with Chapter 2 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution relating to fundamental objectives and directive principles of state policy.”[51]

Dicey defined the supremacy of the constitution as absolute supremacy or predominance of the regular law as opposed to the influence of arbitrary power[52]. He stated further that supremacy of the constitution emphasizes equality before the law or equal subjection of all classes to the constitution and the right of individuals as defined and enforced by the Courts[53]. The recent invasion on the residence of the Supreme Court Justice, Hon. Justice Mary Odili by the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Police authorities shows that this present administration flaunts the rule of law. Kalu observed that in a democratic set-up, the rule of law must be strictly adhered to for the sake of national progress and development. He further stated that the country’s democracy is gradually growing and as such, acts that are not in tandem with the constitution of Nigeria and democratic process must not be tolerated.[54] . From the abovementioned, it is clear that the constitution recognizes citizens as equal and if the ‘supremacy of the constitution is respected by all citizens, that is, the governed and the government, there is the possibility that good governance will be the order of the day[55]. Section 42 of the Constitution buttressed this position[56]

At this juncture, it is logical to say that there is a synergy between the constitution and good governance. The Nigerian Constitution established a national government also created room for separation of powers and checks and balances. Therefore, the constitution is placed above all other laws that guides the government and other organs of government. It is apposite at this stage that Nigeria should develop a workable and consensual constitutionalism for Nigeria.

Nigeria’s development has inevitably remain worsened, despite the fact that the country is endowed with abundant resources in both human and natural form, yet the country is searching for a workable framework for its development. It should be noted that thousands of development programmes such as Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) 1986, Poverty Alleviation Programme Development Committee (PAPDC) 1884, Community Action Programme for Poverty Alleviation (CAPPA) 1996, DFFRI down to this present Government Enterprise and Empowerment Programme (GEEP) TraderMoni have been tried yet the country state is still finding it difficult to occupy her rightful position among the wealthy nations. One of the reasons that is responsible for this stagnation is nothing but a result of bad governance. In developing a workable good governance model for Nigeria, the government must ensure it abides by the rule of law. Good governance and stability can be seen under four factors namely: Democratic institution, Rule of law, Transparency and Service delivery.[57]

Friedman and Mueller[58] discussed the essentials of good governance as the core values and human rights advocated by all members of the United Nations and on the idea of open competition in a globalizing, dynamically changing world. In their work, they listed 7 elements in which good governance should rest on. The essentials are:  Rule of law, Functions of the state, Securing fair competition, Internalization of external effects, Public goods, education, Regional integration and global compatibility. The essentials are summarized as follow:

  1. Rule of law: The law is above any individual person regardless of class or status. Hence the legal system must provide justice and equal treatment for every member of the society and must observe human right. Chapter IV of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution [as amended].
  2. Functions of the state:The state must ensure its checks and balances work properly and also offer a political process that guarantees the participation of all members of its society through some type of representative process. S14 (1)(c) of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution [as amended].
  • Securing fair competition:In order to make market economies work efficiently, an effective economic framework is required. Hence, the state must provide enabling environment with a effective legal and judicial system and a well-regulated financial markets with antitrust legislation, consumer protection legislation, intellectual property legislation.
  1. Internalization of external effects:The state is responsible for minimizing the negative side effects of production. Therefore, it should incorporate negative external effects, into the budgets of households and enterprises by means of economic instruments.
  2. Public good:Good governance requires the state to provide basic infrastructure for transportation and communication, the preservation of the society’s cultural heritage, basic education, and a social policy that guarantees residents a minimum income and health care.
  3. Education:Essential of good governance is to ensure the citizens are well educated there by investing in her educational system for optimal use of the intellectual resources in the state.[59]
  • Regional integration and global compatibility: Since economies and societies are not self- sufficient, the state should adhere to global economies and social standard and integrate this into social standard. Regional integration should also focus on the harmonization of legal rules and standards in order to create viable markets for all and sundry.
  • Conclusion

Though diversity is associated with multiple social outcomes and expectations, we must find a meeting point in consensual and people-oriented constitutionalism. In the light of this, we join the immediate past Emir of Kano to opine that Nigeria nation is sitting on a time-bomb” because the young, the oppressed, and the marginalized may not tolerate marginalization for much longer and “will soon decide that it is better to fight their war.[60] Nation building is work. Tolerance is vital to nation building in a multilingual, multiethnic and multi-religious society like ours. We will, with respect rephrase the words of Udemezue as follows: our leaders need ideas largely on how to deliver good governance in a multilingual, multiethnic and multi-religious country such as Nigeria.[61]Some of these ideas by this author are reproduced in form of recommendations for us to sustain good governance in a multilingual, multiethnic and multi-religious society like ours.

  • Recommendations

From this paper, it is apposite to recommend as follows:

  1. There should be a national dialogue on the way forward and such dialogue must relate with issues such as the adequacy or inadequacies of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
  2. Nigeria should do a SWOT analysis of those things that unites us and not those factors which widens the gap of nationhood in brotherhood such as sports inter-marriage, development among others.
  • Nigeria should as a matter of urgency downplay religion and adhere strictly to the spirit and letters of section 10 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Religion is private and personal. More so, we are not a mono-religious nation.
  1. Secession is not the answer to the problem because discrimination is rooted in every sect, sectors and State.
  2. Nigeria needs a leader that should as a matter of the oath of office accommodate all and be the father of the nation. Such leader should balance appointments into political offices across multilingual, multiethnic and multi-religious interests on the altar of merit. We believe that there is no linguistic affiliation, ethnic race and religion that do not have persons of integrity, with proven track record of meritorious service across different shades of our nationhood.
  3. Nigeria should develop a proper framework to make for effective institutions and systems and stop dancing to the whims and caprices of individuals. We should more in the direction of institutions and not individuals. This is because rule by individuals leads to a journey of no return from the Palace of autocracy.
  • For the sake of national cohesion, Nigeria should limit the number of political parties to 5 in order to bring different nationalities together and foster harmonious relationship. In this case, there is a need to draft a new constitution to reflect the will and wishes of Nigerians among others.
  • The National Orientation Agency (NOA) should be awake to its responsibilities of promoting national cohesion and unity in our diversity.
  1. Reforms should be encouraged in National Youth Service Corp Scheme to promote national integration, unity and imbibe national values and leadership qualities among our youths.

 

 

 

[1] Terngu U. S., and Terngu U. R., Conflict Management in a Heterogeneous Society: The Role of Social Studies Education. Journal of Teacher Perspective Available via http://www.globalacademicgroup.com/Fjournals. Accessed 9 November, 2021

[2]Simonis Udo E., Defining Good Governance: The Conceptual Competition is on. Working Paper WZB Discussion Paper, No. P 2004-005, p. 5. Available at http://hdl.handle.net/10419/50227 and www.econstor.eu. Accessed 8 November, 2021

[3] https://www.unescap.org. Accessed 8 November, 2021.

[4] Ibid.

[5]Simonis Udo E., Defining Good Governance: The Conceptual Competition is on. Working Paper WZB Discussion Paper, No. P 2004-005, p. 4. Available at http://hdl.handle.net/10419/50227 and www.econstor.eu. Accessed 8 November, 2021

[6] Asian Development Bank, Country Governance Assessment 2005, p.7.

[7] Iyoha, F.O., Gberevbie, D.F., Iruonagbe, C.T., & Egharevba, M.E. (2015). “Cost of governance in Nigeria: in whose interest?” International Journal of Social, Education, Economics and Management Engineering. 9,  (1) available on https://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/jpag/article/viewFile/9055/7362 accessed on 7/11/2021

[8] Nyewusira, V. (2007). “Selected socio-political issues in Nigeria: religious institutions as agents of change”. Journal of Pedagogy and Educational Development, 12, (1) available on https://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/jpag/article/viewFile/9055/7362 accessed on 7/11/2021

[9] Kolade, C. (2012). The possibility of good governance in Nigeria.  available on https://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/jpag/article/viewFile/9055/7362 accessed on 7 November, 2021

[10] Arisi, R. O. and Ukadike, O. J. (2011). “Good Governance: A Panacea for Peace and Stability in Nigeria Nation”. European Journal of Scientific Research. Vol. 55, No. 3. Retrieved from http://www.eurojournals.com/EJSR_55_3_10.pdf on 6 /11/21. pp. 413-418

[11] Avijit Biswas (2020) Good Governance: Definitions, 8 Characteristics, and Importance available on https://schoolofpoliticalscience.com/what-is-good-governance/ accessed on 6 November, 2021.

[12] Charlie Nwekeaku, PhD (2014) “The Rule of Law, Democracy and Good Governance in Nigeria” Global Journal of Political Science and Administration, Vol.2, No.1. pp 26-35.

[13] Simonis Udo E., Defining Good Governance: The Conceptual Competition is on. Working Paper WZB Discussion Paper, No. P 2004-005, p. 4. Available at http://hdl.handle.net/10419/50227 and www.econstor.eu. Accessed 8 November, 2021

[14] Kumar Rupesinghe (1996) “Good Governance in the Context of Extreme Poverty International Movement Atd Fourth World” available on https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/6673adt.pdf accessed on 6/11/2021

[15] Danjuma Abdullahi (2012) “Good Governance as Panacea to the Socio-Economic Crises in

Nigeria” IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSRJBM) Volume 2, Issue 3 (July-Aug. 2012), PP 36-40

[16] Kumar Rupesinghe (1996) “Good Governance in the Context of Extreme Poverty International Movement Atd Fourth World” available on https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/6673adt.pdf accessed on 6 November, 2021.

[17] Rachel Gisselquist, 2012. What Does “Good Governance” Mean? available on https://unu.edu/publications/articles/what-does-good-governance-mean.html accessed on 6 November, 2021.

[18] IMF and Good Governance available on https://www.imf.org/en/About/Factsheets/The-IMF-and-Good-Governance accessed on 6/11/2021

[19] Arisi, R. O. and Ukadike, O. J. (2011)” Good Governance: A Panacea for Peace and Stability in Nigeria Nation”. European Journal of Scientific Research. Vol.55, No.3. Retrieved from http://www.eurojournals.com/EJSR_55_3_10.pdf  on 6/11/2021

[20] Rupesinghe, Kumar (1992) “Governance and Conflict Resolution in Multi-Ethnic Societies, in Valery Tishkov, ed., Ethnicity, Autonomy and the Devolution of Power”. Tokyo-New York-Paris: UN University. Retrieved from https://archive.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu12ee/uu12ee04.htm accessed on 6/11/2021

[21] Luo Y, Xu  and others,  A longitudinal study of social status, perceived discrimination, and

physical and emotional health among older adults. Res Aging. 2012;34:275–301. doi: 0164027511426151

[22]  Dimensions of Racism(2005) ;A workshop organized by the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for

Human Rights(OHCHR)in collaboration with UNESCO.

[23]< https://www.foresightfordevelopment.org/featured/ethnicity-tribalism > Accessed 31 July, 2021.

[24] <https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.557148/full>  Accessed 30 July, 2021.

[25]<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1173418/> Accessed on 5 August, 2021.

[26] CFRN 1999

[27] Danjuma Abdullahi (2012) “Good Governance as Panacea to the Socio-Economic Crises in

Nigeria” IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSRJBM) Volume 2, Issue 3 (July-Aug. 2012), PP 36-40

[28] Orji Uzor Kalu (2021) “Invasion Of Odili’s Home Could Cause Tension In Nigeria” https://thenigerialawyer.com/invasion-of-odilis-home-could-cause-tension-in-nigeria-kalu/

[29] Amartya Saha and Devaditya Chakravarti (2019) “Constitutionalism & Good Governance: A Dangerous Servant or a Fearful Master?” https://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/administrative-law/constitutionalism-good-governance-a-dangerous-law-essays.php#citethis accessed on 8/11/21

[30] Ibid

[31] Unini Chioma (2021) “SERAP Wants Court To Stop Buhari From Spending N26bn On Travels, Meals, Others” https://thenigerialawyer.com/serap-wants-court-to-stop-buhari-from-spending-n26bn-on-travels-meals-others/

[32]SERAP Sues Buhari, Wants Court To Declare plan To Monitor …. https://hallmarknews.com/serap-sues-buhari-wants-court-to-declare-plan-to-monitor-whatsapp-messages-illegal/

[33] Ibid.

[34] Dicey (1885). The Law of the Constitution London: Oxford Press A. V. Dicey: Law of the Constitution

[35] Benedict D. Ewemie and Ainabor Augutine “Supremacy of the Constitution And Good Governance In Nigeria” https://globalacademicgroup.com/journals/nard/Benedict.pdf

[36] Ibid

[37] Ibid

[38] Uzoigwe A. M., & Nwadlialor L. K., Towards Bridging Ethnic and Religious Divides In Nigeria: Exegetico-Hermeneutical Application of Gal.3:26-29. Available at https/www.ajol.info

[39] CFRN 1999, s 42.

[40] Many more tribes, language and ethnic groups in Nigeria include

[41] Wendy Yee Mei Tien1 and Maya Khemlani David (2012)”The Governance of a Multi-Ethnic Nation: Its Secrets to Success” https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287311225 accessed on 7/11/2021

[42] Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (2007) “Challenging Times” https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/7774311.Tunku_Abdul_Rahman_Putra_Al_Haj accessed on 8/11/2021

[43] Abdul Rahman Tunku, Putra Al-Haj (1984) “Malaysia, the Road to Independence” https://jifusefadozoduq.directbuyarticles.com/malaysia-the-road-to-independence-book-30924tx.php accessed on 8 November, 2021.

[44] Aragon Loraine V., Multiculturalism: Some Lessons from Indonesia. Available at https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/multiculturalism-some-lessons-indonesia.  Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, June 1994. Accessed on 10 November, 2021.

[45] Thung Ju Lan, Heterogeneity, Politics of Ethnicity, and Multiculturalism: What is a viable framework for Indonesia? Wacana Vol. 13, No. 12 (October 2011) p. 2

[46] Ibid. Thung Ju Lan, p. 280

[47] Ibid. Thung Ju Lan, p. 280

[48] Aragon Loraine V., Multiculturalism: Some Lessons from Indonesia. Available at https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/multiculturalism-some-lessons-indonesia.  Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, June 1994. Accessed on 10 November, 2021.

[49] Ibid.

[50] CFRN 1999

[51]SERAP Sues Buhari, Wants Court To Declare plan To Monitor …. https://hallmarknews.com/serap-sues-buhari-wants-court-to-declare-plan-to-monitor-whatsapp-messages-illegal/

[52] Dicey (1885). The Law of the Constitution London: Oxford Press A. V. Dicey: Law of the Constitution

[53] Benedict D. Ewemie and Ainabor Augutine “Supremacy of the Constitution And Good Governance In Nigeria” https://globalacademicgroup.com/journals/nard/Benedict.pdf

[54] ibid

[55] ibid

[56] CFRN 1999, s 42.

[57] Osunyikanmi Pius Olakunle and  Osunyikanmi Pius Olakunle, (2019) ‘Good Governance and National Development: Nigeria in Perspective” World Journal of Social Science Research ISSN 2375-9747 (Print) ISSN 2332-5534 (Online)

Vol. 6, No. 1, 2019 available on www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/wjssr  accessed on 7/11/21

[58] Friedemann Mueller and Philipp Mueller (2002) “The Essentials of Good Governance” available on https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/essentials-good-governance accessed on 8/11/21

[59] S. 18 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution

[60] Sanusi Lamido Sanusi: Making Nigeria work. Vanguard Newspapers, 19 June, 2021. In ‘For The Good of the Nation – Essays and Perspectives’ By Sanusi Lamido Sanusi; ALFA Books, Ikoyi, Lagos; 2021; p.509

[61] WhatsApp post by Sylvester Udemezue, Esq on 4 November, 2021 at 8:58am on Legal Practice Discourse platform

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