Chima Ubani Centre, Onitsha Nigeria: 31st Jan 2019)-Thirty-Two (32) top security and political officials or public office holders, in addition to one “Utsman Mustafa” (representing perpetrator-combatants or ordered shooters and killers) have been identified as vicarious and direct perpetrators of the Military Massacre Operations in Eastern Nigeria, perpetrated between 30th August 2015 and 14th September 2017; leading to gun-death of no fewer than 480 unarmed and defenseless citizens and gun-injuring of not less than 500 others.
Technically speaking, the vicarious perpetrators are involved having ordered, authorized, directed and sponsored the massacre and shielded the perpetrators from being brought to justice. On the other hand, the direct perpetrators are involved having operationally organized, authorized, supervised, coordinated and executed the massacre and declined to refuse the order to do so in accordance with the fundamental principles of the international law. The two sets of perpetrators or offenders perpetrated and perpetuated the atrocity crimes in Nigeria in their official capacities as public office holders or as sworn elected public office holders and appointed top security officials of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
We had also in the course of our investigation into the massacre identified some perpetrators as repeat-perpetrators or repeat-atrocity perpetrators. Intersociety’s investigation into the massacre lasted for three years or from December 2015 to December 2018. The 32 perpetrators were found to have ordered or authorized the massacre; or organized, funded, supervised, coordinated and executed the massacre. Others were found to have colluded in perpetrating the massacre or refused to act to stop the massacre or shielded or attempted to shield the perpetrators or engaged or attempted to engage in the destruction of evidence so as to erase traces of the atrocity crimes and culpability of the perpetrators.
Intersociety had on Tuesday, 22nd January 2019 released the Executive Summary of its special report (Under Buhari & Osinbajo: Many Have Gone & Crippled for Life in Eastern Nigeria). The link to the Executive Summary is provided here: http://intersociety-ng.org/component/k2/item/406-intersociety-begins-the-release-of-its-special-report-on-military-massacre-operations-in-eastern-nigeria. We had also on 24th Jan 2019 released the names of the defenseless citizens killed and shot and critically injured or crippled for life in the military massacre operations. The link to the statement is here: http://intersociety-ng.org/component/k2/item/407-names-of-defenseless-citizens-killed–crippled-for-life-by-buhari–osinbajo-government
The 32 identified perpetrators owing to their vicarious or direct involvement are the President, Retired Major Gen Muhammadu Buhari (vicarious and repeat perpetrator), VP Prof Yemi Osinbajo (vicarious perpetrator), Gov William Obiano (vicarious perpetrator), Gov Victor Okezie Ikpeazu (vicarious perpetrator), COAS, Lt Gen Tukur Buratai (direct and repeat perpetrator), CDS, Lt Gen Abayomi Olonisakin (direct perpetrator), Major Gen John Enenche (direct perpetrator), former DG SSS, Lawan Musa Daura (direct and repeat perpetrator), Retired IGP Solomon Arase (direct perpetrator), Retired IGP Ibrahim Kpotum Idris (direct and repeat perpetrator), Retired DIG Habila Joshak (direct and repeat perpetrator), Michael Anthony Ogbizi (newly promoted Police DIG: vicarious perpetrator), Major Gen Adamu Baba Abubakar (direct perpetrator), Major Gen Ibrahim Attahiru (direct perpetrator), Major Gen Enobong Okon Udo (direct perpetrator), AIG Hosea Karma Hassan (direct perpetrator) and CP Johnson Babatunde Kokomo (direct perpetrator).
Others are: Late CP Francis Mobolaji Odesanya (direct perpetrator), Brig Gen (formerly Col) Isa Maigari Abdullahi (direct perpetrator), Brig Gen Abdul Kalifah Ibrahim (direct perpetrator), Brig Gen E.A. Anaryo (direct perpetrator), Brig Gen A.I. Adegboye (direct perpetrator), Brig Gen Mark Mamman (direct perpetrator), Brig Gen I.H. Bature (direct perpetrator), Col Sagir Musa (direct and repeat perpetrator), Col Aminu Illiyasu (direct perpetrator), Lt Col Sidi Umar Kasim (direct and repeat perpetrator), Lt Col C.O. Ibrahim (MP: direct perpetrator), Retired DCP Ahmed Magaji (direct perpetrator), COMPOL Peter W. Wagbara (direct perpetrator), Navy Captain Abdullahi Aminu (direct perpetrator) and “Utsman Mustafa” (lead-shooter and one of the killer combatants). He is a direct perpetrator.
Further details concerning the above named perpetrators are scientifically and statistically provided in the four tables attached with this statement. The information contained in the four tables include the names of the perpetrators, their titles/ranks and positions held as at the time the atrocity crimes were perpetrated and their degrees of involvement in the atrocity crimes. Also included are the appointment numbers and exit dates of the serving senior police officers involved and those already retired as well as dates or periods of the commission of the atrocity crimes. The electronic link to the four tables is provided here: http://intersociety-ng.org/phocadownload/2019/jpg list of perpetrators in the military massacre operations in eastern nigeria.pdf
For purpose of technical guidance as it concerns the news writers and publishers and the general reading public; concise and grounded legal definitions of victims of crime (atrocity crimes), direct and vicarious criminal responsibility or atrocity crime perpetrators/offenders are provided below as a guide.
Defining Victims Of Atrocity Crimes: By the United Nations Declaration on Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crimes and Abuse of Office, 1985, “Victims of Crimes are persons, who, individually or collectively, have suffered harm including physical or mental injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or substantial impairment of their fundamental rights, through acts or omissions that are in violation of criminal laws operative within member-States, including those laws prohibiting abuse of power. The victims include, where necessary, the immediate family or dependant of the direct victim and persons who have suffered harm in intervening to assist people in distress or to prevent victimization”.
Defining Direct & Vicarious Perpetrators Of Crimes
Perpetrators: In the course of naming or identifying the perpetrators of the Military Massacre Operations including the Nigerian Army Python Dance 11 in Abia State in September 2017, vicarious and direct perpetrators were identified.
By vicarious liability or responsibility, it is concisely defined as the responsibility of the superiors for the acts of their subordinates or, the responsibility of any third party that had the “right, ability or duty to control the activities of a violator, but failed or declined to do same.” It is also a liability assigned to an employer or other principal for his agent’s or employee’s acts performed in the course of employment or other duty.
By direct perpetrators, they are perpetrators or atrocity criminals that ordered, supervised, coordinated and executed the massacre; facilitated or attempted to facilitate the destruction of evidence-and colluded in protecting the command structure and rank and file culprits resulting in them not being fished out and brought to justice or held to account for the atrocity crimes committed.
For: Int’l Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law
- Emeka Umeagbalasi (B.Sc. (Hons) CSS, M.Sc. PCR)
Principal Official/Board Chair
- Obianuju Joy Igboeli, Esq., (LLB, BL)
Head, Civil Liberties & Rule of Law Program
Chinwe Umeche, Esq., (LLB, BL)
Head, Democracy & Good Governance Program
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